All grapes have to be picked by hand in the Douro as the mountainous topography with its very steep gradients renders mechanisation impossible. Teams of pickers, known as rogas, gather at the Quintas, some travelling from other areas of Portugal to supplement their incomes. In some vineyards, the same rogas return year after year, sometimes over several decades, through a sense of belonging and pride towards ‘their’ Quinta.
The grapes are gathered into small, shallow tray-like boxes and swiftly transported to the wineries on small tractor-drawn trailers. In the wineries the grapes are sorted, de-stemmed, gently crushed and conveyed to the lagares — traditional or modern — in readiness for treading and fermentation.
In this sixth video of our series ‘A year in the vineyards’ we look at versaison in the vineyards of Quinta dos Malvedos.
Veraison, known in the Douro as pintor — literally ‘painter’ — is the process by which the grapes gradually change colour — in the case of red varieties from a bright green to a reddish colour, and eventually to deep blue/violet. The berries start to lose chlorophyll and acquire red pigments in the skins, hence the change in colour. Veraison marks the transition from the vines’ growing cycle to the maturation and ripening stages where rapid berry growth takes place. The pintor begins in the Douro around the middle of July. From this point on the berries soften and their sugar content steadily increases whilst the concentration of organic acids declines. Aroma and flavour components also begin to accumulate in the fruit.
During the month of July, some further vine canopy management is often required and this involves shoot-topping, in other words trimming back the tips of the vine shoots, important on various counts: it helps to redirect the vines’ energy away from gaining further unnecessary shoot length and towards maturing the fruit instead; it results in a better aeration of the vine canopy thus ensuring healthier vines; it keeps the space between the vine rows clear for ease of passage — essential for keeping a constant check on the vines’ health.