The Earliest Vintage – Douro Harvest Report 2017

The Quinta da Cavadinha winemaking team celebrating after 5 weeks of harvest

This has been a very dry and warm year in the Douro. From December 2016 onwards, every month had substantially below average rainfall apart from a 30-mm downpour and some localised hail on the afternoon of 6th July. This rain increased the year’s figures, but was of minimal benefit as most simply ran off the vineyards in torrents, causing some damage to terraces. Lots of our valuable soil ended up in the Douro river, which flowed golden-brown for a few days.

Quinta do Bomfim at Pinhão recorded just 302 mm of rain in the 11 months from 1st November 2016. This is exactly 50% below average. Considering that grape yields in the Douro’s mountain vineyards are 4,300 kg/hectare (compared to 10,200 kg/ha in Italy and 13,300 kg/ha in Chile) the drought conditions we experienced this year were always going to be challenging. It is difficult to farm these steep hillsides. Even in years with good weather conditions, production in the Douro is low. A year of drought and heat like 2017 really reinforces quite how challenging our growing conditions are.

A dry and relatively warm winter was followed by the three crucial spring months – March, April and May – that were cumulatively 2.6˚C warmer than average and equally dry. The only surprising interlude was a cold spell during the last 10 days of March that on the 23rd brought a rare snowfall and localised frost. April was the driest since records began in 1931 and delivered an absurdly low 2.6mm of rain.

Bud-break began between 8th and 10th March, a week earlier than average and the vine development advanced at an even faster pace, with flowering taking place between 4th and 5th May, two weeks earlier than normal. It was apparent from June that our vines were adapting to the dry conditions, with limited shoot and leaf growth. They seem to have an extraordinary ability to know when it is better not to be exuberant.

June was the hottest since 1980, with a heatwave between the 7th and 24th and temperatures reaching 43˚C in the Douro Superior.  Pintor (veraison) occurred at Bomfim on June 22nd, two weeks ahead of average. July was equally hot and dry, but thankfully August was more moderate with relatively cool nights, bringing a welcome respite in the final phase of ripening.

By early August it was clear that this was going to be an early vintage and that the prolonged drought would not be relieved by any late summer rain.  The forecast for the weekend of the 26th & 27th did predict rain, but only a modest 4mm fell at Quinta do Vesúvio and an even more modest 2 mm at Bomfim. Maturation was so advanced in most vineyards by this stage that the rain was of little benefit.

In order to prepare for the harvest, Charles Symington had to call his winemaking team back from their summer holidays – a measure of how advanced this year’s cycle has been. Picking for our white wines started on 23rd August and for our reds on the 28th, 10 days earlier than any previous date recorded. The vines were showing signs of stress from dehydration and graduations inevitably were high.

A year like this brings the diversity of the Douro into sharp focus; the south and westerly facing vineyards suffered from the long hours of afternoon sun, whilst those above 300 metres had an altitude advantage with cooler temperatures. There was a contrast between the younger vines that struggled with less-developed root systems and the older vines that hardly seemed to notice the drought. The former were shedding their lower leaves by mid-August, a sign of vines going into survival mode. Their older cousins soldiered on with fine dark green leaves but few berries on each vine. Barroca is a variety that does not like drought and yields were very low at under 500 grams per vine on some plots, but Roriz performed remarkably well, as did the Douro’s great classic; Touriga Nacional. Touriga Franca, always a late-ripener, was exceptionally good and thrived this year.

Expectations were not high, but confidence grew by the day as the Douro wines and Ports showed surprisingly good colour and aromas. The weather stayed perfectly serene throughout with clear skies and crucially, with cool nights during the last three weeks of September. Such harvesting weather is of huge value to the ripe and fragile fruit.

The Douro is one of the world’s lowest yielding wine regions, and this year’s drought reduced production even further. Some of our vineyards produced 35% less than normal and the average is likely to be less than 940 grams per vine.

While visitors enjoy the traditional aspects of the Douro, in reality this was a year for using the best of modern technology in some areas. With raisining being the inevitable consequence of such a year, our Bucher Vaslin Oscillys de-stemmer machines, installed at five of our estate wineries, performed superbly. These de-stemmers operate without beater shafts or centrifugal force and use a swinging motion to separate grapes from the stems and gently reject damaged berries without damaging the grapes that pass through for fermentation.

There was a serious labour shortage in the Douro this year. This was partly due to the very early harvest but also because of the tourism boom in Portugal that has drawn people away from agricultural work. It is proving to be increasingly difficult to find pickers and this has become a serious problem as the grapes need to be harvested when they are ready. The Douro is waking up to reality; no other major European wine region is entirely picked by hand.

We finished harvesting our vineyards on 26th September, often the starting date of previous vintages. This has been a remarkable year but it is unlikely to be a one-off; there are clear indications that our future will increasingly be defined by climate change with higher temperatures and less rain. The Douro will need to adapt if it is to continue to make great wines and Ports from this, the largest area of mountain vineyards on earth.

Now that the dust has literally settled (the first rain for many months has just fallen) on our earliest ever harvest, we are pleased to see that some very good Douro wines have been made, particularly the red wines with gorgeous colour and concentration, and the Ports are also promising with purple-black colours and intense flavours.

Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal, 18-10-17

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Vineyard Monitoring Robot Trialled at Quinta do Ataíde

Vineyard Monitoring Robot Trialled at Quinta do Ataíde
Vineyard Monitoring Robot Trialled at Quinta do Ataíde

In December 2016, the Spanish Universities of Valencia and La Rioja, Wall-YE Robots & Software of France, Sundance Multiprocessor Technologies of the UK and Symington Family Estates formed a consortium to develop a vineyard robot. The three-year project (2016 – 2019) aims to design a vineyard monitoring robot that can aid wine producers throughout Europe in measuring key vineyard parameters, including water availability (vine water status), vine leaf/canopy temperature and variations in plant vigour.

Existing vineyard data collection methods have many constraints because they are time-consuming, require skilled field operators and the use of expensive equipment and only deliver reduced sampling rates that are statistically insufficient and therefore do not accurately map the status and variability of a given vineyard. It is because of these limitations that most producers simply do not employ vineyard mapping, thus foregoing valuable data that could improve their vineyard management and ultimately influence the quality of their wine. It is this capability gap that VineScout will bridge by providing accurate, comprehensive and swift on-the-go data gathering. Furthermore, VineScout operates autonomously using GPS guidance and fitted sensors which allow it to navigate between rows of vines without a human operator. The collected data can be rapidly processed, providing the vineyard manager with valuable information that can be interpreted in real time, allowing for assessments of — and timely interventions in — the vineyard.

An overriding objective of the project is that VineScout must have a low carbon footprint. The robot is powered by electric batteries whilst the onboard sensors and other software are powered by energy generated by solar panels fitted to the vehicle. This solar energy can also further charge the batteries which propel the robot, whilst on the move, providing VineScout with additional range in the field. Furthermore, VineScout’s construction favours light and recyclable materials.

The VineScout prototype was field-trialled in the Grape Variety Research Vineyard at Quinta do Ataíde during the last week of August. The three-day trials included an open day, ‘Agronomy Day’, in which other wine producers from the Douro as well as universities, tech start-ups, and research institutes saw VineScout in operation. The open day included an end-user focused round table discussion to exchange ideas and review lessons learned. Professor Francisco Rovira-Más of the Universitat Politécnica de Valencia, the consortium project coordinator and an expert in robotics and agricultural engineering, and Fernando Alves, the Symington Viticulture R&D manager, were delighted with the outcome of the field trials and with the participation at the seminars. They regarded the participants’ input as providing a valuable contribution to the project’s advancement.

VineScout is funded by the European Union H2020 ‘Fast Track to Innovation Pilot’ with the objective of developing a robot that is affordable, reliable and user-friendly. European Union funding accounts for €1.7 million of the total €2 million investment.

Symington Family Estates was invited to participate in this innovative project in April 2016 at the ClimWine 2016 International Symposium held in Bordeaux and which addressed the topic of “Sustainable Grape and Wine Production in the Context of Climate Change”. A presentation delivered at the symposium by the Symington Viticulture Research and Development Manager caught the attention of attending representatives from the University of La Rioja — one of the consortium members — and subsequently led to an invitation for Symington Family Estates to become the end-user member of the VineScout project. Symington Family Estates reputation in the field of viticultural and winemaking research and development in the Douro region, as well as its proven record as a leading producer of both Port and Douro wines, was also instrumental in it being invited to become the end-user partner in the VineScout consortium.

Further field tests have been programmed for 2018 at Quinta do Ataíde and at Quinta do Bomfim, during June, July, and August. VineScout is a logical evolution of the Vine Robot experimental project which ran from 2013 to 2017 and which has provided the succeeding VineScout project with a solid grounding and a useful springboard to fully develop a successful vine monitoring robot.

 

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The Earliest Start to the Douro Harvest in Living Memory

Vintage 2017
Vintage 2017

The unprecedented early start to the Douro vintage, being at least a week earlier than the earliest we have ever started and in some cases nearly three weeks, has certainly been the right decision.

In the majority of the quintas, we are picking grapes with good graduations and good phenolic ripeness, lagares looking very promising in terms of colour and structure, although still early to assess aromas. We have picked most of the earlier ripening varieties: Barroca, Alicante-Bouschet, Sousão and Tinta Roriz. We have picked some Touriga Nacional and through this week we will be picking this variety at most quintas. This means it is likely that during the week of the 11th we will be picking mostly the Touriga Franca and that during the week of the 18th the vintage at our quintas will be largely concluded. We will in fact be finishing at many quintas on dates that would not be unusual to be starting!

Clearly the vintage in the Douro Superior is very much reduced due to the very low levels of rainfall throughout the year. It has not rained at riverside quintas in the Douro Superior since May. Last week we had an insignificant 2mm at Vesuvio and Senhora da Ribeira and not a single drop at Canais, Malvedos or Bomfim. Meanwhile there is no suggestion of rain forecast until the end of the month — not to mention maximum temperatures of 30-34ºC all through this week! So just as well we didn’t wait….

It is likely that the Douro Superior letter ‘A’ areas will produce 40% below average and that the Cima Corgo letter ‘A’ some 25% below average. The letter ‘B’ and ‘C’ areas and the Baixo Corgo are likely to have a normal or above average size vintage, it being likely that overall the region will have an average to just below average size vintage. What gives us some pause for thought is the fact that the yield of Kg to litres is very low, some 20% below-average.

Charles Symington
Douro · 4th September 2017

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2017 Vintage About to Begin

Quinta dos Malvedos

After successive months of unusually hot and dry weather and the rapid maturation of the vines, the earliest vintage in living memory is about to begin in Symington Family Estates’ Douro vineyards.

2017 saw the hottest June since 1980, a trend that continued into July and August, which have had well above average temperatures and rainfall 33 (Douro Superior) – 46%(Cima Corgo) down on usual levels. As such, veraison occurred 10-15 days earlier than usual and currently baumés are high and phenolics are advanced in line with the viticultural cycle.

Although early to predict, structure and concentration are likely to be the main virtues of this unconventional early vintage in the Douro.

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A Year in the Vineyards, July 2017

Despite the hot and dry spring, the vines are looking verdant and healthy(Quinta do Vale da Malhadas, foreground and Quinta do Vale Coelho in the background).
Despite the hot and dry spring, the vines are looking verdant and healthy (Quinta do Vale da Malhadas, foreground and Quinta do Vale Coelho in the background).

Weather extremes are not uncommon in the Douro Valley and the arrival of spring this year was a perfect illustration of that. The period of the vines’ winter dormancy, during which the plants have minimal metabolic activity (they’re literally asleep) was fractionally warmer and drier than average and the spring followed a similar pattern — hot and dry. However, the season kicked off in the Douro with abundant snowfalls on March 23rd that shrouded the region’s higher altitude vineyards with blankets of snow. Widespread frost also affected the Douro Superior on the 25th. The chill, though, was short-lived and temperatures soon swung back up in April; it was the third hottest month of April of the last 40 years.

As well as unseasonably warm, this spring was also very dry due to the overall lack of precipitation. March did manage approximately half the monthly average rainfall but April was remarkable for the near total absence of rain; just 2.6mm was recorded at Quinta do Bomfim where the average for the month is 46.9mm. It was in fact the driest month of April since official weather records began in Portugal in 1931. Precipitation in May was closer to the mean, helping to raise soil moisture levels. For the spring as whole (March through to May), rainfall was approximately half the thirty-year average.

As a result of these climatic conditions, bud-break, which marks the beginning of the vine’s vegetative cycle, began between the 8th and 10th of March (Touriga Franca at Quinta do Bomfim), very similar dates to 2016 and approximately a week earlier than average. Although the start of this phase then slowed significantly, the vegetative cycle soon picked up and advanced at a very fast pace.

Flowering occurred three weeks earlier than in 2016, beginning between the 4th and 5th of May and was two weeks ahead of average dates. By the end of the month the cycle maintained this precocity with formed bunches well visible in the Touriga Franca.

The upside of the hot and dry conditions has been the very low disease threat levels (downy and powdery mildew), in sharp contrast to the comparable period in 2016. Vine canopy management was a priority during the final stage of the three month period, involving vine hedging (despampa), shoot topping (desponta) and shoot positioning (ampara) — guiding the shoots through the trellis wires. Weed control along the soil top cover also required great attention given the extra vigour of plant growth encouraged by a combination of the high temperatures at the start of this cycle and the availability of water in the soil, which although limited was sufficient to stimulate such growth.

At our Douro properties, new plantings were concluded at Quinta do Bomfim with 7.5 hectares of Alicante Bouschet, Touriga Nacional and Touriga Franca; Quinta da Macieira in the Vilariça Valley with 8 ha of Alicante Bouschet; Quinta dos Malvedos with 7 ha of Touriga Nacional and one hectare of top grafting (see definition below); Quinta da Telhada with 6.5 ha of Touriga Franca; Quinta de Roriz with 1.5 ha of Touriga Nacional and 1.9 ha of top grafting and finally Quinta da Perdiz with the planting of 4 ha of Touriga Nacional. This brings the total planting for this year to 34.5 ha of new vines and 2.9 ha of top grafting (changing over to Touriga Franca).

Top grafting (sobre-enxertia): “Changing the fruiting vine variety of a mature vineyard by inserting a bud of a selected variety in each vine, but retaining the established root system.” (source: The Oxford Companion to Wine, Fourth Edition, 2015).

At our principal grape variety library, established at Quinta do Ataíde in 2014, studies were carried out on the dynamics of bud-break and flowering for each of the 53 varieties planted and similar studies were also made at the Quinta do Bomfim Grape Variety Library.

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Portraits of the Douro
– João Tomás –

João Tomãs
João Tomás
During the release of a honey buzzard back to the wild at Quinta dos Malvedos, we spoke to Dr. João Tomás, of the Wild Birds Recovery Unit of the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, about his life in the Douro and his passion for birds.
For more information on Wild Birds Recovery Unit visit their Facebook page, here (in Portuguese).

Adriano Ferreira Borges: Good morning. What’s your name, and what do you do for a living?
João Tomás: Hello. My name is João Tomás and I’m a vet.

AFB: And where do you live?
JT: At the moment in Vila Real, but originally, I’m from Batalha.

AFB: So, you’re not from the Douro then. Do you like it here?
JT: Yes, of course! I came here to study in Vila Real, specifically, veterinary medicine in the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro in 2008. When I finished my studies, I had the luck to be able to stay on in the Wild Animal Recovery Unit (Centro de Recuperação de Animais Selvagens) of the University Veterinary Hospital. However, I was born in the centre of Portugal, in Batalha, but now I think I am more than part Trásmontano (a person from Trás-os-Montes)… I like it in Vila Real, I don’t know what tomorrow will bring, but for now I like it here.

AFB: You said you worked in the Wild Animal Recovery Unit. Do you only work with birds, or do you also treat other animals?
JT: We work with wild animals in general, including, wild birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Normally the animals that find their way to us are found injured on the street, and are brought to us by members of the public. We then try and figure out what’s wrong, and return them to their home in nature.

AFB: But you have a special relationship with birds, right?
JT: Yes, since I was young I’ve been fascinated with them, something I inherited from my father who also loved to study them when he was young. In 2010, I volunteered in a recovery unit, and worked with a group of people passionate about birds, which made my interest grow even more. So now, a day doesn’t pass that I don’t look at a bird, and I don’t walk in the field with my binoculars to see what I can see. At this time, it is a passion and a hobby, and I hope in the future I can work in the area.

AFB: Did you ever work with wine?
JT: To be honest, I never had much contact with it! I have a friend from secondary school whose family produce some wine, but just for their own consumption. And now that I think of it, I helped my uncle during the harvest when I was very young.

AFB: So, you have been living in the Douro nine years now, what changes have you noticed in this time?
JT: Well, everything I like about it has stayed the same! The things that I can put my finger on are the more negative things, like the increase in forest fires in the summer, and this year even in the spring.

AFB: How do you imagine the Douro in ten years’ time?
JT: In the last 10 or 15 years, the Douro has already changed for the better due to increased tourism and investment, something the region badly needed due to the desertification of the region in the 80’s and 90’s. I think that developments in the vineyards, and in winemaking are very positive for the local populations as it has created jobs and the opportunity for more companies to invest in the region. Tourism has also allowed new people to get to know this beautiful place.

AFB: So, you think tourism is a positive thing?
JT: On one hand it is, due to what I said earlier. On the other, we must be careful, as we need to remember to preserve all living things, which need their own space. We need to protect what is already here.

AFB: Well, although you live in a beautiful place, you must go on holidays sometimes. Where do you go?
JT: Good question! Basically, my holidays revolve around observing birds! I try and go to areas of the country that I know are inhabited by species of birds I haven’t seen before, and try to observe them.

AFB: That’s dedication! What sort of food do you like?
JT: I like traditional Portuguese cooking, and principally my mother’s!
AFB: Any favourite?
JT: I love cozido á Portuguesa and posta Maronesa (steak maronesa)

AFB: Do you not mean to say Mirandesa (a breed of cow)?
JT: No, no. The breed is Maronesa, from the Marão mountains, although now you find more of them in the Alvão.

AFB: I won’t argue with you! Thanks for talking to me.
JT: You’re welcome!

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Porto and the Early Days of Motoring

Andrew James Symington's (at the wheel) Daimler 1912
Andrew James Symington’s (at the wheel) Daimler 1912. Photograph: Unknown
Andrew James Symington was the first of the Symington family to work in the Port trade, and came to Porto in 1892. He is the great-grandfather of the current generation of the Symington Family running the company. In the below excerpt from his book, “A Life in the Port Trade”, James Symington briefly describes a Porto that once was, and his grandfather’s penchant for motoring.

“AJS (Andrew James Symington) prospered in the Port business and acquired a fine house in the Avenida da Boavista. This was a major new artery running from the city, through what up to that time had been farmland, down to the sea. His son, Maurice was born in this house in 1895 and was to die there in 1974, in the same room in which he had been born. The house had a fine garden and AJS built a lovely and very English drawing room which gave onto it. He also had a special ceiling constructed in the dining room with a ventilator so that the cigar smoke could escape.

My grandfather was an early enthusiast of motoring and acquired a 1912 Daimler in which he ventured on occasion to the Douro over the appalling roads of the time. More usually however the train was the comfortable and practical way to visit the Douro, some three and a half hours’ journey from Porto. Although AJS was a keen motorist his skill at the wheel never matched his enthusiasm and he regularly battered his cars. On one occasion when he had just acquired a new car – a 1922 Cadillac – he decided he did not much like its colour and resolved to have it repainted. His sons, knowing full well that it would require a repaint very soon in their father’s hands, persuaded him that the colour was very pleasant and so it remained unaltered. Sure enough a few weeks later whilst driving out of his front gate, he scraped the whole side of the car and it had to be repaired and was then painted in his chosen colour.”

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Portraits of the Douro
– António Júlio Vieira –

António Júlio Vieira. Douro.
António Júlio Vieira. Photograph: Adriano Ferreira Borges.
In this series we will interview the people that live, work and travel in the Douro Valley. This week, Adriano Ferreira Borges speaks to António Júlio Vieira.
AFB: Hello there. What’s your name, and what do you do for a living?
António Júlia Vieira: My names is António Júlio Vieira, and I work for myself.

AFB: Are you from Foz Tua?
AJV: No, I’m from São Mamede de Ribatua (Alíjo).

António Júlio Vieira on the banks of the Douro. Photograph: Adriano Ferreira Borges.

AFB: Not too far away so! What sort of food do you like?
AJV: All that’s good (laughs), but only if your paying!

AFB: Ah go on, you must have a favourite!
AJV: I like diversity, and mostly greens. All sorts of greens!

AFB: And to wash it down? Do you have any connection with wine production in the region?
AJV: Well, I’ve always worked for myself. I worked in construction and built my own house and buildings, but I don’t do that anymore. My children don’t want houses! On the side I produce wine for myself, and sell what’s left to the co-op winery. 

AFB: How do you think the Douro will be in ten year’s time?
AJV: I think it won’t change too much. The elderly are already dying and the young don’t want to work!

AFB: What about the increase in tourism?
AJV: It’s true that its growing. And that’s a good thing, at least, as the region needs to make a bit of money somehow!

AFB: And what about yourself, do you ever go on holidays?
AJV: Me? That depends. I’ve gone to Madeira and to the Azores. And some years I’ve just stayed here.

AFB: Alright, thanks for talking to me.

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Portraits of the Douro
– António Augusto Ribeiro –

António Augusto Ribeiro. Portraits of the Douro
António Augusto Ribeiro. Photo: Adriano Ferreira Borges.
In this series we will interview the people that live, work and travel in the Douro Valley. This week, Adriano Ferreira Borges speaks to António Augusto Ribeiro, Douro farmer and ardent Benfiquista.
AFB: Good morning! What’s your name, and what do you do for a living?
AAR: My name is António Augusto Ribeiro, and I’m a farmer.

AFB: Are you from around here?
AAR: I am indeed. I’m from Fiolhal (Carrazeda de Ansiães).

António Augusto Ribeiro and his van. Photo: Adriano Ferreira Borges.

AFB: Great! So you like living in the Douro I take it?
AAR: Definitely! It’s the best place in the country!

AFB: What’s your favourite food?
AAR: Feijoada à transmontana (this is a typical bean stew from the Trás-os-Montes region of Portugal).

AFB: Have you ever worked in wine production?
AAR: Yes, many years ago, it must be 40 now, I worked for Smithes (referring to John Smithes, the pioneering Cockburn’s winemaker known as the “cowboy of the Douro”). Then we used to carry the grapes on our backs. It was hard work I’ll tell you!

AFB: And do you think the Douro has changed much since then?
AAR: Or course. In the past, this was a difficult place to live and work, but now, with machinery it’s much easier.

AFB: In ten years, where do you see the Douro?
AAR: How should I know! Why don’t you go and ask António Costa (the prime minister) and Marcelo (the president)!

AFB: Good answer. I’ll leave you to it so!

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A Year in the Vineyards, March 2017

Frost on the vine in the vineyards of the Douro
Frost on the vine. Photograph: Fernando Alves
Miguel Potes, no stranger to the ups and downs of a year in the vineyards, talks about winter pruning, low temperatures, and a lot of hard work.

The winter pruning of the 2016/2017 viticultural year was largely concluded in our vineyards by the third week of February, a little later than usual due to the fact that in many of our properties in the Cima Corgo sub-region of the Douro work only began during the first half of December. Typically, winter pruning would be well underway during the month of November, but this year’s delay can be explained by the longer than usual vegetative cycle of the vines over the preceding season (2015/2016), which meant that after the vintage the vineyards were still relatively lush and the onset of leaf-fall was delayed by approximately two weeks. The above-average temperatures during the first half of November accentuated this further.

The relatively late start to the 2016 harvest also inevitably influenced the delay in winter pruning. In some of our principal vineyards such as Quinta dos Malvedos, picking during the harvest was halted on two occasions to work around some (beneficial) rain that arrived during the middle of September. Some of the finest grape varieties, including the Touriga Nacional, only began to be picked from September 26th, which meant that the harvest finished quite late, well into October.

Our pruning teams did not have to contend with much rain; in fact over the winter the lack of rain has given us some cause for concern, the shortfall being approximately 40% when compared to the 30-year-average. However, they did face very cold conditions, especially through January, which records showed as being the third coldest January of the last 30 years. The lowest temperature was registered at Quinta do Ataíde’s weather station on January 19th: 5.6°C below zero, which underlines the continental climate of the easternmost part of the Douro region.

Fortunately our pruners are equipped with electric secateurs, which not only increase productivity but also make the task much less physically demanding. They do, however, have to face the whims of winter weather for weeks on end, not to mention having to negotiate the steepness of the terrain, which really doesn’t make their task any easier.

Winter pruning of the vines is essential for their rejuvenation in the spring and one of its prime objectives is to influence the following season’s yield by controlling the number of buds and therefore those that will potentially burst and give rise to the desired number of bunches of grapes per vine.  Because it is so labour-intensive and time-consuming it accounts for around a third of the annual costs in our vineyards.

Electric secateurs notwithstanding, winter pruning in our vineyards is still an entirely manual task. It is one of the single most important periods of the year in the lifecycle of our vines for it is at this time that decisions are made that will determine the individual future of every single vine and have a significant impact on the success of this year’s crop. During the moments the pruner spends on each vine his or her decisions influence its growth over the new vegetative cycle, its fate quite literally in their hands. Manual pruning requires great skill, knowledge and experience if it is to be carried out successfully and one of its great advantages, as opposed to mechanical pruning, is the precision it offers given that each vine is tended with individual care, one of the indispensable prerequisites for the production of the finest possible wines.

 

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